kredyt studencki pko opłaty manipulacyjne pożyczki prywatne forum i opinie pożyczki na dowód kredyt bank lodz godziny otwarcia kredyt bez biku torun kredyt bank reuters kredyt studencki wbk 2012 ekspresowe pożyczki gotówkowe w domu klienta pożyczki pozabankowe przez internet forum pożyczki banknot odsetki od pożyczki od rodziny kredyt santander bank 3x33 doradcy24 pożyczki kredyty bez biku ikrd pożyczki chwilówki porównanie pożyczki od osób prywatnych słupsk kredyt bank w lublinie pozyczki od reki w ostrolece kredyt bank łuków kontakt duo pożyczki chwilówki kredyt w banku zachodnim wbk pożyczki dla rolników bez bik pożyczki online 15 min gdzie kredyt bez bik warszawa odsetki od pozyczki z zfss umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs a pit bankomaty kredyt banku w pile bocian pożyczki legnica udzielenie pożyczki po angielsku bocian pożyczki trzebiatów pożyczki w vivus forum umowa pożyczki zabezpieczenie weksel pożyczki z windykacją pożyczki do 1200 zł pożyczki na umowę cywilno prawną warszawa allekasa pożyczki kredyty mieszkaniowe dla osób samotnych pożyczki gotówkowe kredyt bank kredyt bank pyskowice gdzie można dostać kredyt bez bik kredyt bank sa chojnice kredyt bank powsińska kredyt gotówkowy alior bank kontakt prywatne pozyczki pod zastaw szczecin pożyczki gotówkowe wrocław kredyt w banku zagiel ostrow wlkp bocian kredyt telefo potrzebuje pinie pożyczki u prywatnej osoby krakow kredyt bez bik na start pożyczki od osób prywatnych pod weksel kredyt bank okres bezodsetkowy kredyty chwilówki net kredyt bank tygrysy europy pożyczki pozabankowe finan szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń poznań pożyczki chwilówki pożyczki bez bik dobra pożyczka pko bank polski kredyt kalkulator pożyczki blog kredyt bez bik żary pożyczki bez bik do 2000 zł pożyczki chwilówki bez sprawdzania w bik kredyt bank elbląg godz otwarcia pożyczki pod weksel kredyt bank katowice uniwersytecka godziny otwarcia gdzie wziasc pozyczke vivus w galeri krakow pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia kredyt bez bik i krd zielona góra kredyt prywarny z zabezpieczeniem ubezpieczenia umowa konwersji pożyczki pożyczki prywatne sanok pożyczki lublin kredyty bank bedzin ktory udzieli kredytu na dowod pożyczki pod zastaw polisy na życie kredyt gotówkowy w credit agricole opinie pożyczki gotówkowe prywatnie pożyczki bez bik podkarpacie orange kod kredytu kredyty konsolidacyjne pozabankowe wejherowo pożyczki zielona góra pożyczki chwilówki warszawa jana pawła fundusz korona pożyczki firma udzielająca pożyczki pożyczki jst kredyty bez bik katowice kredyt wspólnoty mieszkaniowej pożyczki gotówkowe alior bank kalkulator pożyczki prywatne mława dobre pożyczki opinie pożyczki chwilówki nowe firmy kredyty bez biku gliwice pozyczki pozabankowe na alimenty bydgoszcz kredyt bank wita stwosza kredyt bank iii oddział warszawa szybki kredyt przez internet bez bik i krd pożyczki na rozpoczęcie działalności gospodarczej prywatne kredyty bez bik i krd najtanńsza sprawdzona pożyczka bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny comperia kredyt konsolidacyjny w boś banku kredyt bez bik dla każdego rezygnacja z karty kredytowej multima wzórkredyt bank kredyt konsolidacyjny encyklopedia pożyczki od osób prywatnych częstochowa szybkie pożyczki bez prowizji szybkie pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik pożyczki najkorzystniejsze pożyczki chwilówki sms szybkie pożyczki bez bik wałbrzych pożyczki chwilówki końskie żyrafa pożyczki kredyty chwilówki białystok praca kredyt w ulster bank ie wonga pożyczki szybkie pożyczki tychy kredyt bank konstancińska godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc kredyt bankowy okres przedawnienia kredyt bank mińsk mazowiecki umowa pożyczki gotówki pdf kredyt bank lokaty wrzesien 2013 pozyczki w domu klienta w plocku kredyt bank królewska 55 szybkie pożyczki społecznościowe pożyczki bez bik we wroclawiu pożyczki wejherowo podatek od pożyczki termin kredyt bank zory godziny otwarcia pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy kredyt bank legnica rynek godziny otwarcia panda pozyczki opole pożyczki dla niepełnosprawnych pożyczki od prywatnych inwestorów pod weksel pożyczki społecznościowe bez weryfikacji kredyty chwilówki lędziny idea bank kredyty gotówkowe kredyt bank cieszyn godziny otwarcia kredyt bank nowe konto oszczędnościowe symulacja kredytu w credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny wyjaśnienie kredyty bankowe pasywa pożyczki bez bik w kielcach kredyt mieszkaniowy 250 tys jaka rata umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs zmarłego pracownika szybkie pożyczki cieszyn kredyt bank filia nr 4 gdynia kredyt studencki pko sa 2012 umorzenie pożyczki bankowej kredyt bank starogard gdański pożyczki pozabankowe ostrów wielkopolski pożyczki dla młodzieży pożyczki od ręki gdańsk kredyt bank bezpieczne dziecko pożyczki pozabankowe firmy skarabeusz pożyczki głogów pożyczki bez biku przemyśl kredyt bez biku poznań dukat wawa pożyczki kredyt studencki pko bp ddyt-w-banku-a-podatek/'>kredyt w banku a podatek pozyczki internetowe czy dostane pozyczke w ei global kredyt mieszkaniowy pko symulacja kredyt bank kolobrzeska alex pożyczki wrocław kredyt chwilówka kłodzko pożyczka bez zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank sa iii oddział w warszawie bank pko sa kredyt mieszkaniowy opinie fałszywa umowa pożyczki udzielanie pożyczki a vat księgowanie pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie kredyt bank rzeszów adres kredyt bank bfg optima pożyczki telefon pożyczki chwilówki w przemyślu pożyczki bez bik słubice lub pożyczki gotówkowe bez pracy witam kredyt bez biku pożyczki na start dla firm kredyt bank wolska wycena bilansowa udzielonej pożyczki multibank kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum umowa pożyczki zwolniona z pcc szybkie pożyczki bez bik big i krd pożyczki nieruchomości kredyt w banku skok stefczyka kredyt bez bik gdzie dostane pożyczki i kredyty pozabankowe pożyczki online chwilówki pożyczki pozabankowe gdynia kredyty bez biku kraków pożyczki bez bik w bydgoszczy pożyczki pomysł na biznes kredyty bez bik i zdolności kredyt gotówkowy w lukas banku kredyt bank radzymin pozyczki do domu świdnica kredyt studencki pko sa 2012 pożyczki dla mikroprzedsiębiorstw opole pożyczki dzierżoniów kredyt chwilówka bielsko kredyt bank oleśnica kontakt kredyt bank kb token kredyt bank lomianki godziny otwarcia pożyczki prywatne na już kredyt bank ekstrakonto profil aktywny 50 kredyt bank tarnów lwowska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank 24 aplikacja przekształcenie pożyczki w kapitał zakładowy konsolidacja pożyczki pożyczki gotówkowe płock kredyt bank oddziały warszawa mokotów kredyt pekao sa kalkulator kredyt bez zus us kredyty chwilówki w lesznie pożyczki kredyty na dowód kredyty chwilówki tychy kontakt szybkie pożyczki pozabankowe poznań pożyczki internetowe od 18 lat kredyty chwilówki dąbrowa górnicza szybki kredyt bez bik katowice getin noble bank kredyt obrotowy kredyt gotówkowy w lukas banku kredyt bank oplaty i prowizje kredyt bankowy ewidencja kredyt bank krasnystaw zabezpieczenie pożyczki prywatnej wekslem kredyt bank gdynia świętojańska godziny otwarcia kredyt bank ciechocinek telefon w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy kredyt chwilówki kalkulator szybkie pożyczki kalisz kredyt bank goldenline kredyt konsolidacyjny 2012 pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania poznań pożyczki dla osób pracujących za granicą umowa pożyczki pieniędzy a urząd skarbowy pożyczki na dowód wnioski szybka pozyczka pieniezna w dublinie duzy kredyt bez bik wieruszów pożyczka chwilówka bez potwierdzania konta pozyczki bydgoszcz 24 kredyty bez bik i dochodów kredyt bank csv szybkie pożyczki na dowód łódź pożyczki mieszkaniowe w zakładach pracy kredyt bez bik dla bezrobotnych najtańszy kredyt gotówkowy bank spółdzielczy pro domo pożyczki szczecin pożyczki preferencyjne wikipedia kredyt w orange jaki nr pożyczki pod zastaw auta lublin tani kredyt samochodowy dla firm kredyt mieszkaniowy w getin banku forum kredyt bez bik forum dyskusyjne pożyczki na dowód bez prowizji kredyt kwidzyn pożyczki w krakowie kalkulator kredytu samochodowego alior bank pożyczki chwilówki holandia pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kredyt bank piotrków trybunalski godziny otwarcia kredyt bank starachowice godziny otwarcia pożyczki 0 procent kredyty chwilówki uk alior bank kredyt gotówkowy konsolidacyjny kredyt bankowy słownik ikko projekt pożyczki pożyczki opole godziny otwarcia kredyty bez biku mysłowice kredyt bank piła adres pożyczki bez bik duże kwoty kredyt bank włodawa kontakt zaświadczenie o dochodach pko bp kredyt studencki kredyt bank okopowa umowa pożyczki od obcokrajowca kredyty pozyczki bez bik big krd kredyt bank 24h pożyczki społecznościowe abis kredyt bank kb24 adres kredyt banku centrala kredyt bez bik glogow pożyczki chwilówki tarnów najniższe oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowej 2014 pożyczki chwilówki vivus pożyczki dla rencistów przez internet pożyczki na mały procent banki kredyt mieszkanie dla młodych kredyt bank godziny przelewów przychodzących pożyczki na dowód płock sprzedaż kredyt banku santander 2012 pozyczki poznan umowa zlecenie global pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt bank gdynia bławatna kredyt bank kolegialna 22 pożyczki bez bik koło pozyczki bez biku gorzow pożyczki abis forum pożyczki na lichwe pożyczki dla nowych firm kredyty pozabankowe wrocław pożyczki posiadacz kredyt bank ile kosztuje przelew pożyczki chwilówki tczew kredyty chwilówki wieliczka fundusz inwestycyjny pożyczki kredyt bank kod banku pożyczki dla nowych firm pozyczka pieniezna w dublini wzór umowy pożyczki osoby fizyczne kredyty bankowe ksiazka kredyt przez internet bez bik bez wychodzenia z domu kredyt bank i santander pożyczki gotówkowe na pit umowa pożyczki gotówki udzielę pożyczki prywatnej kredyt konsolidacyjny w kb leszno pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank godziny otwarcia słupsk kredyty chwilówki system partner pożyczki na założenie firmy kredyt bank ii oddział gdańsk kredyt bank rzeszów godz otwarcia pożyczki od 20 lat banki udzielajace kredyt na pit krakow kredyt bank kasprzaka 22 udzielę pożyczki prywatnej szybko i bez sprawdzania przewalutowanie pożyczki kredyt w millenium bank kredyt konsolidacyjny dla zadłużonych z komornikiem kredyt na mieszkanie bank pko orange kredyt 5 zł niespłacenie pożyczki repudiacja pożyczki kredyt bank w sokółce pożyczki dla pracowników kredyty gotówkowe bez bik forum umowa pożyczki między małżonkami wzór udzielenie pożyczki przez spółkę wspólnikowi kredyt studencki pko poręczenie bgk kredyt bank praga południe kredyt bank zwolnienia 2013 pozyczka bez wykazywania dochodów adam nowakowski pożyczki jakie jest oprocentowanie kredytu mieszkaniowego w pko pozyczka bez bik na splate komornika umowa pożyczki druk umowa pożyczki w lombardzie pożyczki pod zastaw chorzów szybkie pożyczki przez internet forum kredyty w banku santander umowa pożyczki wspólnika do spółki w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt bank dworna łomża pożyczka w uk dla każdego kredyty bez bik w gdyni transfery w kredyt banku kredyt konsolidacyjny pekao sa kredyt bank osiedle kazimierzowskie bocian pożyczki giżycko kredyt na samochód bez zaświadczeń bez bik kredyt bank opole krakowska godziny otwarcia kredyty chwilówki brodnica w jakim banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na firmę getin noble bank kredyt samochodowy jastrzębie zdrój pożyczki bez bik poznań kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i zaświadczeń kredyt bank lokata 2012 pożyczki dla bezrobotnych forum odsetki od pożyczki udziałowiec kredyt dla wspólnoty mieszkaniowej 2012 kredyt bank przelicznik rat kredyt bank środa śląska godziny otwarcia kredyty bez bik czestochowa kredyt bank mikołów telefon banki pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki bez bik zmiana oprocentowania pożyczki kredyt bank bankomaty gdańsk kredyt bank wrocław godziny otwarcia pożyczki na duże kwoty fides pożyczki alfa tral pożyczki kredyty chwilówki pierwsza za darmo udzielę pożyczki prywatnej pod weksel kredyt w banku dla zadluzonych kredyt bank lokata opinie kredyt bank lomianki godziny otwarcia kredyty pozabankowe numer telefonu warszawa pożyczki pod zastaw pożyczki świętochłowice kredyt bank krakow godziny otwarcia kredyt bank sa jelenia góra udzielę pożyczki prywatnej łódź pożyczki pozabankowe wyszków kredyty bez bik zaświadczeń pożyczki start up pożyczki pozabankowe w koszalinie kredyt chwilowka pożyczki bez bik do 1000 wzór umowa pożyczki na cele mieszkaniowe z zfśs bocian pożyczki świdnica kalkulator kredytu gotówkowego deutsche bank pro domo pozyczki ostroda kontakt kredyty bez bik chełm kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator pko kredyty chwilówki wałcz kredyt bank w tarnowie eurobank pożyczki opinie kredyt konsolidacyjny 20 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny raty pożyczki dla mikrofirm bez bik pożyczki pozabankowe w piotrkowie trybunalskim kredyt bank sa zielona góra kredyty konsolidacyjne kredyty komornicy kredyt konsolidacyjny porównanie pożyczki chwilówki bez bik kredyty dla zadłużonych bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny czy gotówkowy pożyczki na dowód od ręki kredyt bank cieszyn godziny otwarcia obsługa pożyczki w domu pożyczki tise getin bank kredyty samochodowe jastrzębie zdrój kredyt bank dekabrystów częstochowa wzór umowy pożyczki pcc inwestor pozyczki z zagranicy pożyczki pod zastaw sieradz kredyt mieszkaniowy rynek pierwotny pożyczki bez bik i krd chrzanów kredyt bank routing number gdzie dostać kredyt bez bik kredyt w pko bp opinie 2013 pożyczki kórnik najtańsze pożyczki w banku asper pozyczki lodz kredyty od reki od 18lat ostrowiec sw kredyt na wyciąg z konta bez bik konin pożyczki pod zastaw nieruchomości koszalin pożyczki bez bik siedlce pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik i krd warszawa pożyczki prywatne żywiec pożyczki o charakterze inwestycyjnym pożyczki na dowód opinie kredyt mieszkaniowy dla singli rodzina na swoim potrącenia pożyczki z wynagrodzenia pismo o umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs abis wniosek o kredyt calkowita splata pozyczki wzor banki ktore udzielaja kredytu przez internet kredyt bank zablokowanie konta prywatne pożyczki gotówkowe bez bik kredyt w banku pocztowym oprocentowanie czy vivus udziela pożyczek zadluzonym kredyty chwilówka stalowa wola kredyty chwilówki rrso kredyt bank szczecin okulickiego godziny otwarcia umowa pożyczki ze wspólnikiem spółki kredyt bank maciej bardan pożyczki chwilówki od 20 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny z opóźnieniami pożyczki bocian zgorzelec jak zaksięgować umorzenie pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki kredyty bez historii praca pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bez bik 40000 kredyt bank raport roczny 2011 wzór umowy pożyczki z zabezpieczeniem kredyty pozabankowe do 30000 kredyt bank sa w warszawie departament windykacji pożyczki na dowód oleśnica kredyty chwilówki nowy bytom przedawnienie pożyczki prywatnej kredyt chwilówki kluczbork umowa pożyczki kwoty pożyczki polska umowa pożyczki może być zawarta w dowolnej formie kredyty konsolidacyjne koszalin pożyczki chwilówki pozabankowe pożyczki gotówkowe gros bank spółdzielczy kredyt forum kredyt pozabankowy na mieszkanie szczecin parabanki kredyty chwilówki pożyczki konin tanie kredyty gotówkowe bez bik kredyt bez bik wałbrzych kredyty pozabankowe warszawa szybka pozyczka z obsluga w domu pożyczki internetowe pierwsza za darmo pożyczki łomża kredyt mieszkaniowy oprocentowanie forum kredyt samochodowy bez zaświadczeń forum kredyt bank centrala wrocław umowa pożyczki minimalne oprocentowanie wniosek o umorzenie pożyczki wfośigw pożyczki pod zastaw zielona góra

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

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funny sayings

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

 

 

About This Website:

Over the next few weeks, through winter's long roost, I am going to discuss winter words and sayings. Some are terms you know; others will be new. Let me know if you enjoy these brumal siftings.

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, February 05, 2015

 

 

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Translate this page into any of the languages in the pop-down below. The machine translations are not perfect, but they are adequate.

 

Hiemal, Brumal, Algid & Other Wintry Wordlets

Winter’s root is wet, literally. The same Germanic root that gives our words water and wet makes the first vowel nasal and so adds an ‘n’, thus *ued > *wet > *went > *wint > winter. Thus winter is closely related to other English words like water and otter!

Druids’ Winter

Or, winter may stretch all the way back to a root form in Proto-Indo-European *ueid that gives Celtic words for ‘white’; compare for example Old Irish find ‘white’ and many other Celtic cognates like Welsh gwyn ‘white’ and perhaps even the Druids ‘people of the white oak’ from *dru-ueid or oak-white. Dru means ‘oak tree’ and there are two PIE morphemes represented as *ueid. The second *ueid means ‘know, see.’ One of its reflexes in English is the word wit with its prime meaning of insight. In Latin, PIE *ueid displays as videre ‘to see.’ Take *dru and *ueid compounded to make the word Druid, and the Druids could be the ‘oak-knowers’ based on their veneration of the oak tree and its mistletoe.

Classical Winter Words

English borrows Latin and Greek words for coldness and winter to obtain both poetic and medical words. The most common Latin word for winter is hiems, from which English derives a learned adjective hiemal ‘taking place in winter, pertaining to winter.’ Latin hiems is cognate with these Indo-European relatives: Greek χειμώνας heimonas ‘winter’, Greek χιών chion ‘snow’, Sanskrit हेमन्त hemanta ‘winter,’ literally ‘snowing time’ and Russian зима zima.

There is a Hindu god of snow, Himavat. In Sanskrit, himavant conveys “having much snow,” coming from the word himá “frost, snow. The Himalaya ‘abode of snow’ Mountains got their name from Sanskrit himá ‘ snow’ + Sanskrit alaya ‘home.’

Rare in modern English, the word hiems is used memorably as a poetic personification of winter by William Shakespeare in the opening scene of Act 2 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Titania, queen of the fairies, tells her husband Oberon that even the moon is displeased with their quarrels and consequently the very seasons of the year are changed.

TITANIA

Therefore the moon, the governess of floods,
Pale in her anger, washes all the air,
That rheumatic diseases do abound:
And through this distemperature we see
The seasons alter: hoary-headed frosts
Fall in the fresh lap of the crimson rose,
And on old Hiems’ thin and icy crown
An odorous chaplet of sweet summer buds
Is, as in mockery, set . . .”

The Quarrel of Titania & Oberon, the fairy Queen and King

 

Brumal

Brumal, a Latin-derived wintry adjective I like, bears a blustery, blizzard-riven sound. Brumal chills freeze and peel the very skin from your shivering bones. In classical Latin, bruma referred to the shortest day of the year. The word is contracted from a superlative form of the simple Latin adjective brevis ‘short,’ brevima, itself a contraction of brevissima, a feminine superlative adjective nominative, possibly from a phrase like dies brevissima ‘the shortest day’ [of the winter solstice].

Secondarily in Latin, bruma meant midwinter but was nowhere near as common as hiems. Ancient winter feast days named Brumalia are mentioned in Roman literature. Winter sea fogs are brumal. They tumble across frosted docks and cling to the matted felt of pea jackets.

French borrowed bruma too, first as la brume ‘short winter day’ but  in modern French it means haze, sea mist or fog. In 1938 director Marcel Carné made a beautiful film of poetic realism called Le Quai des brumes starring three of the great early actors of French talkies: Jean Gabin, Michel Simon and Michèle Morgan. The film title is usually translated as “Port of Shadows” but that is pallid beside its much punchier literal meaning “Wharf of Fogs.”

Just after the Fr. Revolution, when the monthly calendar was changed, February for a brief time was rechristened Brumaire ‘month of wintry fogs.’

 

Boreal

All Hail, Boreas (depicted above), god of winter, tyrian-winged wind god of the north, who blows down from cold mountains of Thrace, all-chilling with breath of ice. To the north, beyond (Greek hyper) his mountain home, lay Hyperborea, a land of eternal spring which was never touched by the god’s cold wind.

The adjective boreal in English means pertaining to the north; situated on the northern side; of a northern character; of or pertaining to the north wind, located or living in a cold place.

An ancient Greek rural belief was that fecund winds Boreas and Zephyros would sweep down upon early spring pastures where mares in heat waited to be fertilized by the horses of the spring wind, ghostly stallions but full of equine vigor. Horses born from these couplings were best of breed.

Internet bit: “In Greek vase painting, Boreas was depicted as a striding, winged god. Sometimes his hair and beard were spiked with ice. In mosaic art, he often appears as a gust-blowing head with bloated cheeks up among the clouds. This imagery carried over into post-Classical art, and is frequently found in old maps.”

Afterwinter & Back-Winter

Both these terms name a return to winter temperatures after spring weather has already begun or simply cold, muddy weather leading up to real spring.

Robin Storm: A Canadian After-Winter Phrase

You’ve opened the cottage, primed the pump, set the summer chairs on the new cedar deck, shared a christening goblet of Château Qui Sait?, and, just as you settle into the hammock to imbibe the piney brio of it all, a thick snow squall blows in across the lake to welcome the start of June. It’s a late-in-the-season storm familiar to most Canadians, and some call it a robin storm, in an attempt to lessen its chill by invoking one of our cheerful spring birds, the robin.

Lapwing Winter

To birders in Denmark and Scandinavia, a cold snap in the spring is a lapwing-winter or a lapwing-snow, because it arrives just as lapwing birds return.

Blackberry Winter

In the southern United States, a period of cold weather late in the spring is a blackberry winter, because it happens often just as the blackberry bushes set buds or bloom. It’s the title of a wonderful 1946 novella by American novelist Robert Penn Warren who captures rural Tennessee slang and a young boy’s innocence, depicting it as well as any American writer ever did.

Hibernate

English supplies verbs to describe what the critters do seasonally. To hibernate is to pass the winter in a state of torpor. Hiberna is a Roman military word for ‘winter camp,’ related to hiems ‘winter.’ To estivate is to the pass the summer so. But we need a verb to describe what many do all the year round. With due humility, I suggest totannate from Latin, totum ‘all’ + annus ‘year’ meaning ‘to pass the entire year in a state of torpor.’

Algid

Rarest of the cold synonyms, poor, tiny, freezing wordlet algid crouches furtively in the less read pages of medical literature where it means ‘very cold,’ from Latin algidus ‘cold’ from algere ‘to be cold.’ One may still read of algid cholera where the patient is damp and clammy instead of moist and hot.

I do like its noun algor which has a distinct wintry brrr! about it. She treated his begging for forgiveness with utter algor. In Victorian medicine, algor referred to the chills that often mark the onset of a fever.

To Inwinter or Not

Finally, a neat English verb, to inwinter, is to protect sheep or other domestic animals by sheltering them inside barns or other structures during viciously cold inclemency that might kill them. Inwintering brood ewes is still safe farm practice.

Bleak Jack Frost may still make cheek raw and red, but we are at least two or three winter words up on the rimy rascal.

 

Bridge in Winter, a woodblock by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1797 – 1858 CE

 

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad