kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pocztowym forum kredyt bank blokowanie karty kredyty mieszkaniowe opinie pożyczka bez bik i krd pożyczki gotówkowe w skoku orange kredyt na 5 zł kwota pożyczki zwolniona z podatku kredyt bank wałbrzych ul słowackiego umorzenie pożyczki z zfśs dla emeryta mcredit pożyczki warunki pożyczki w alior banku kredyt bank lipowa białystok w jakim banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt konsolidacyjny umowa pożyczki a podatek dochodowy pożyczki z funduszu pracy dla bezrobotnych kredyt bankowy praca licencjacka open finance pożyczki gotówkowe otrzymanie pożyczki pcc kredyty bez bik i zabezpieczeń pożyczki chwilówki w płocku kredyty chwilówki radomsko pożyczki bez sprawdzania historii kredytowej kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin kontakt kredyt studencki pko wymagane dokumenty kredyt gotówkowy santander oprocentowanie pożyczki przez internet bez biku kredyt bank tczew telefon kredyt bank w kołobrzegu kredyt bank bankomaty rzeszów bocian pożyczki zachodniopomorskie kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku millenium opinie kredyt bez biku szczecin pożyczki chwilówki bochnia finan pożyczki kwidzyn kredyty chwilowki do 100 000 kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy eurobank pożyczki chwilówki bydgoszcz pożyczki 10000zł kredyt konsolidacyjny najniższe oprocentowanie oferty pożyczki bez bik w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochód umowa pożyczki ojciec syn wzór odsetki od pożyczki w grupie kapitałowej kredyt bank warszawa rondo onz kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank forum kredyty bez komornika biku idea bank oprocentowanie kredytu kredyt gotówkowy przy umowie na czas określony kredyt bank bedzin kredyt na dowód getin bank umowa pożyczki wzór przelew everest bocian pożyczki kredyt bank ul kasprzaka warszawa pożyczki gotówkowe elbląg umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu świadczeń socjalnych pożyczki na pit kredyt bank czarnków kredyt bankowy w rachunku kredytowym kredyt bank wroclaw gliniana kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku pko bp marka pożyczki ełk szybkie pożyczki bez krd pożyczki w kc chwilówki ruda śląska pożyczki chwilówki śląskie kredyt mieszkaniowy w nordea opinie mikropożyczki na założenie firmy pożyczki 15 minut kredyt konsolidacyjny pko bp oprocentowanie pożyczki gotówkowe millenium ślimak pożyczki bydgoszcz kredyt konsolidacyjny paribas kredyty chwilówki bez big w którym banku najlepiej wziąć kredyt na samochód kredyt konsolidacyjny online kredyt konsolidacyjny db kredyt kalkulator kredyt bank mława godziny otwarcia kredyt bank przelicznik kredyt bank zielona góra al niepodległości kredyt mieszkaniowy wbk forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w pko bp opinie kredyty dla nowo powstalych firm bez bik umowa pożyczki do spółki komandytowej pożyczki bez bik i zaświadczeń online kredyt studencki bank polski pożyczki pozabankowe 40000 kredyt bez bik lomza kredyty chwilówki środa wlkp pożyczki w domu myszkow pożyczki chwilówki na telefon i przez internet bocian pozyczki goleniow kredyt bez bik plock pożyczki dla bezrobotnych online bankomaty kredyt banku lublin kredyty pozyczki bez biku pozyczka sms dla zadluzonych jestem w bik pożyczki takto bankomaty kredyt banku kraków kredyt bank paypal kredyty chwilówki brodnica pożyczki oddłużeniowe bez zabezpieczeń kredyt gotówkowy w banku wbk pożyczki społecznościowe spłacalność kredyt bank zambrów kontakt przekwalifikowanie pożyczki na kapitał kredyt bank olecko kredyt bank lokaty terminowe oprocentowanie kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego kredyt konsolidacyjny bank polski kredyt bank węgrów kredyty chwilówki bez bik usługi odsetki od pożyczki wyliczenie pożyczki kredyty dla nowych firm kredyt w banku na firme umorzenie pożyczki zfśs księgowanie kredyty bez bik 50000 kredyt bank warszawska kredyty bez bik w bydgoszczy kredyt bank opole żwirki i wigury kredyt bank oddział bielany wrocławskie kredyt chwilówka lodz pożyczki z komornikiem chorzów kredyty pożyczki gotówkowe kredyty chwilówki knf pożyczki pod zastaw pabianice kredyt bez biku ełk kredyt konsolidacyjny najniższe oprocentowanie kredyt bank direct umowa pożyczki wzot vivus przedłużenie pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator bzwbk kredyt bank bełchatów godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez zaświadczeń lublin pożyczki osób bezrobotnych kredyt w bank of ireland forum kredyt mieszkaniowy getin bank oprocentowanie pożyczka na dowód chwilówka w częstochowie pożyczki gotówkowe krd kredyt pozabankowy katowice kredyt konsolidacyjny warunki przyznania kredyt konsolidacyjny skok kopernik cesja wierzytelności pożyczki umowa pożyczki opodatkowana vat pożyczki bez bik we wrocławiu w którym banku najłatwiej dostać kredyt mieszkaniowy pożyczki kalkulator lukas bank pożyczka przez internet bez bik geting bank pożyczki pod zastaw kwidzyn pożyczki bez bik w siedlcach kredyt bez biku kalisz kredyty i pożyczki długoterminowe w bilansie decyzja o umorzeniu pożyczki z zfśs wzór kredyt bank lublin głęboka godziny otwarcia w jakim banku warto wziąć kredyt pożyczki bez bik krd big kredyt mieszkaniowy dochody z zagranicy szybkie pożyczki gdynia kredyt bankowy dla nowych firm pożyczki bez bik dąbrowa górnicza look finanse pożyczki jak wziąść pożyczke kredyt gotówkowy bez zaświadczeń i bez biku pożyczki prywatne pomorskie kredyt bank patriotów kredyt bez bik i krd przez internet umowa pożyczki dla spółki osobowej kredyty bez biku dla zadluzonych kredyt bank warszawa bartycka kredyt bank polbank kredyty konsolidacyjne z opóźnieniami umowa pożyczki w ratach access pożyczki piaseczno pożyczki prywatne z dostawą do domu pożyczki bocian kościan pko kredyt mieszkaniowy forum kredyt samochodowy dla studenta kredyt mieszkaniowy jaki bank polecacie kredyt bank wymiana walut linia kredytowa w kredyt banku kiedy umowa pożyczki jest ważna szukam pożyczki 2013 kwota pożyczki angielski kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator rat kredyt konsolidacyjny dla osob pracujacych za granica kredyt studencki kredyt bank sa zarząd pożyczki dla nauczycieli w szkole kredyt konsolidacyjny krotoszyn kredyty w millenium bank udzielenie pożyczki gofin kredyty gotówkowe bez zaświadczenia o dochodach kredyt samochodowy w santanderze umowa pożyczki wzór pdf umowa pożyczki pod zastaw mieszkania wzór kredyty bez bik walbrzych pożyczki bez bik mysłowice pomocne pożyczki kredyt studencki 2013 opinie e lokata kredyt bank udzielone pożyczki prezentacja w bilansie pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez bik przez internet bocian pożyczki zarobki kredyt banki sieradz kredyt bank w czestochowie pożyczki chwilówki przez internet jaki jest numer na kredyt z orange kontakt z para bankiem w rzeszowie udzieli pozyczli umorzenie pożyczki dla emeryta kredyt bank zmiana limitu pożyczki na dowód od ręki umowa pożyczki pieniężnej wzór doc kredyt w banku umowa zlecenie kredyty banków komercyjnych kredyt bank działdowo pożyczki olsztyn bez bik umowa pożyczki do spółki z oo kredyty parobankowe udzielajacy miesieczne raty pożyczki warka pożyczki na dowód ostrowiec odsetki od pożyczki mieszkaniowej wzór kredyt bank poznan dabrowskiego promocja pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy eurobank forum umowa pożyczki podpisana za granicą kredyt bankowy konto kredyty pozabankowe malbork pożyczki prywatne bez zabezpieczenia kredyt konsolidacyjny lukas bank kalkulator konwersja pożyczki na kapitał odsetki kredyt bankowy na rachunku bieżącym kredyt bez bik podkarpacie tanie pożyczki bez bik kredyt z orange jaki nr kredyt mieszkaniowy wcześniejsza spłata niespłacona umowa pożyczki inwestor pozyczki z zagranicy pożyczki gotówkowe dla osób pracujących za granicą szybkie kredyty dla firm bez bik chwilowka tczew czy dostane pozyczke na dowod niskooprocentowane pożyczki dla firm cesja wierzytelności z tytułu pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciem komorniczym kredyt bank placowki kredyt bank kluczbork godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny na wyciąg skarabeusz pożyczki czestochowa ing bank kredyt 5000 rata pożyczki kalkulator kredyt bank kto go kupi dar pożyczki działdowo jak otrzymać kredyt bez bik kredyty mieszkaniowe procent kredyt studencki pko rezygnacja umowa pożyczki jako umowa wzajemna kredyt bankowy a rozwód kredyt gotówkowy w banku spółdzielczym kredyt bank ukraina pożyczki pozabankowe płońsk kredyt bez biku bielsko uzasadnienie pożyczki kredyty pozabankowe luban forum pożyczki chwilówki kredyty bez bik warszawa odsetki karne od niespłaconej pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe na samochód kredyt bank łączy się z bz wbk proste pożyczki bez bik kredyt bank iv oddział wrocław plac solny kredyty bez bik z zajęciami komorniczymi pożyczki start up konsekwencje niespłacenia pożyczki szukam pożyczki pozabankowej udziele pożyczki pozabankowej bocian pożyczki pomorskie szybki kredyt bez bik wrocław kredyt bez bik w jakim banku kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim a rozwód oprocentowanie debetu w kredyt banku kredyt bank zielona góra godziny otwarcia kredyt gotówkowy eurobank kalkulator pożyczki pozabankowe we wrześni pożyczki stefczyka bożena molenda kredyt konsolidacyjny promocja bartek pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny forum kredyt mieszkaniowy w polsce kalkulator ewidencja pożyczki na wyprzedzające finansowanie pożyczki dla firm porównanie pożyczki wałcz ewidencja księgowa pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny w santander pożyczka bocian kartuzy nr telefonu kredyty bez bik zdunska wola oferta pożyczki gotówkowej wymagalność odsetek od pożyczki kredyt bank oddział ursynów wzór umowy pożyczki udziałowca pożyczki bez zaświadczeń toruń kredyty bez bik i zus kredyt kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator kredyt w skoku rafineria z komornikiem kredyt mieszkaniowy bank pocztowy forum pożyczki lichwiarskie warszawa certus pożyczki umowa pożyczki za granicą pcc bocian pożyczki zarobki pożyczki od osób prywatnych w uk pożyczki z komornikiem wrocław pożyczki atiz kredyt bank kosciuszki lodz kredyt bank cennik przelewów kredyty chwilówki malbork alior bank kredyt dla rolników pożyczki od ręki bez zaświadczeń umowa pożyczki forma pozyczka bez bik 5000 umorzenie pożyczki wspólnika szybkie pożyczki na dowód sosnowiec umowa pożyczki wzór spłata w ratach kredyt studencki w ktorym banku pożyczki vivus opinie forum kredyt konsolidacyjny licznik kredyt bank kiedy wychodzą przelewy kredyty chwilówki knurów pożyczki w ostrołęce pożyczki świnoujście część pożyczki kredyt bank w zamościu warunki pożyczki w provident kredyty chwilówki z jakimi bankami współpracują wyliczanie oprocentowania pożyczki kredyty gotówkowe bez bik i krd kredyt bankowy krótkoterminowy kredyt w tesco bank w uk pożyczki bez zaświadczeń o zarobkach kredyt samochodowy bez bik ka kredyt samochodowy paribas bank opinie w jakim banku kredyt rodzina na swoim czy od pożyczki w banku płaci się podatek kiedy odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem pozyczka 2000 online kredyt bank warszawa kasprzaka kredyt studencki pko czy pekao pożyczki ekspresowe bocian pożyczki na dowód w banku bocian pożyczki zawiercie pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kielce pożyczki bez bik brzeg kredyt bank zolnierska olsztyn pożyczki chwilówki cała polska pożyczki bez bik ostrów wielkopolski actum pożyczki potwierdzenie umowy pożyczki pożyczki chwilówki na dowód przez internet pożyczki chwilówki profit pożyczki pod zastaw elektronarzędzi lublin jaki dobry kredyt konsolidacyjny pożyczki bocian cieszyn numer pożyczki warka kredyt bank rybnik wolności przedawnienie umowy pożyczki pozyczki bez krd i bik tczew pożyczki dla firm bez bik zus i us pozyczka w uk na benefity poszukuję pożyczki prywatnej pożyczki prywatne nowy targ pożyczki internetowe bez prowizji kredyt bank warszawa regon spłata pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego kredyt bez bik rzeszow kredyt bank władze oprocentowanie kredytu gotówkowego bank spółdzielczy żyrafa pożyczki kredyt gotówkowy banku pocztowego kredyty chwilówki siemianowice świerczewskiego kredyt bank online gdzie wziasc kredyt bez bik kredyt chwilówka prudnik cesja pożyczki podatek dochodowy pożyczki chmielna kredyt bank elbląg godz otwarcia skarabeusz pożyczki częstochowa pożyczki do domu opole jakie jest oprocentowanie w stefczyku pozyczki umowa pożyczki zasady kredyt konsolidacyjny gotówkowy mbank kredyt bez bik i krd chorzow szybki kredyt bez bik krd kredyt wspólnota mieszkaniowa odpowiedzialność udzielanie pożyczki przez firmę kredyty chwilówki nowy sącz kredyt w banku a rozwód kredyt bank warszawa marszałkowska pożyczki gotówkowe pod zastaw pożyczki pod zastaw kielce na jaki nr wziąć kredyt w orange kredyt w skok stefczyka bez bik kredyt na juz bez bik kościan prywatna pozyczka w bialymstoku kredyty bankowe saldo początkowe pożyczki osoba prywatna kredyt bank kalisz godziny otwarcia kredyt konsolidacyjny zły bik kredyt na 5 zł w orange kredyt studencki warunki otrzymania kredyty chwilówki bitwy warszawskiej kredyt bank lista placówek tczew pożyczka z bankomatu kredyt pozabankowy przez internet kredyty pożyczki legionowo kredyt bank w rawiczu umorzenie pożyczki z funduszu socjalnego umowa zwrotu pożyczki kredyt pozabankowy oferty pożyczki anglia wypowiedzenie umowy kredytu credit agricole kredyt konsolidacyjny bank bph getin bank centrum kredytów samochodowych kontakt bank pko bp kredyty studenckie optima pożyczki zarobki pożyczki oprogramowanie kredyt bank druki getin bank kredyty samochodowe tel pozyczki nasielsk warszawska na oswiadczenie pożyczki gotówkowe na dowód znaczenie kredytu w działalności banku zawieszenie spłaty kredytu studenckiego pko odsetki od pożyczki są przychodem kredyty chwilowki opole kredyt bank pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki z niską ratą kredyty mieszkaniowe białystok kredyty gotówkowe w banku millennium kredyt dla zor w banku pocztowym jaka kwota pożyczki bez podatku akropol pożyczki kredyt bank gdańsk kontakt regulamin zfśs pożyczki mieszkaniowe dpg pożyczki kredyty bankowe praca magisterska kredyt konsolidacyjny rzeszów pozyczki online kredyt bank klienci kredyty chwilówki łaziska górne jaki kredyt samochodowy forum kredyt bank lokata z premią kredyty bez bik pod zastaw samochodu kredyt bez bik dla firm umowa pożyczki gotówkowej kredyt konsolidacyjny z dodatkową gotówką pożyczki krótkoterminowe w uk kredyty chwilówki zgierz kielce pożyczki pozabankowe kredyt bank monki bocian pożyczki gdańsk umowa pożyczki podmioty powiązane wniosek o przyznanie pożyczki z zakładu pracy kredyt bank konto oszczędnościowe opłaty wzory dokumentów pozew o zwrot pożyczki kredyt samochodowy ranking lipiec 2013 pożyczki bez bik i krd warszawa kredyt bankowy w finansowaniu msp kredyt bez bik malbork warunki uzyskania pożyczki pożyczki kronos zawiercie pozyczki udzielane w domu lublin najtańszy kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim ogłoszenia pożyczki prywatne pod weksel kredyty pozabankowe 10000 pożyczki do domu puławy konsolidacja kredytu gdzie najlepiej pozyczki od 19 lat dla zadluzonych online pożyczki pod zastaw legionowo pozyczki poznan gros capital,tempo kredyty mieszkaniowe pko bp forum sprzedaż wierzytelności pożyczki zwrot pożyczki przychód windykator kredyty chwilówki kredyty w alior bank forum umowa pożyczki odsetki ustawowe kredyt bank pszczyna godziny otwarcia alior bank kredyt w euro gwarant pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank bb millennium pożyczki kredyt mieszkaniowy ile wkladu wlasnego allianz bank kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt w pko pożyczki pod zastaw auta łódź pożyczki 2000 umowa pożyczki z bankiem pożyczki w bankach bez bik pożyczki pod zastaw gruntu kredyt bank poznań dąbrowskiego tel kredyty bez bik podkarpacie kredyt studencki porównanie banków kredyt bank konskie pożyczki oprogramowanie pozyczki chwilowki od osob prywatnych mielec kredyt bez bik do 10000 kredyt studencki pko sa forum pozyczki w domu klienta slask

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

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About This Website:

This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next new word column, Thursday, October 30, 2014

 

Today's Topic:

Viral Words under the Lexoscope

 

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 Viral Words Examined

 

With Ebola virus at the screaming pEEK! of earthly paranoia, it is fitting that we convene to examine the toxic piquancy of words in viral science, terms perhaps not in your acquaintance but ones you may wish to know, like virion, capsid and zoonotic. And I will add a related concern.

On a recent traipse through untended meadows, that is, while reading word-origin websites, I forgot to put on my rubber boots and had to wade through fresh plops of fecal word bunk, etymological baloney claiming that the words virus and virtue descend from the same Latin morpheme.

What slothful lip-flap! What nugatory hooey! What cretinous bilge! What a nescient nuisance of lackadaisical laxity! But mostly — What lazy slob first posited such claptrap?

Why, oh why, I daily ask owl-wise Minerva, goddess of wisdom, why does every letterless, drony bumpkin pine to don the wizard’s cloak and pontificate about words? I suppose because we all use words; words are the cheap chaff of chitchat. It never occurs to these listless quarterwits, all with the IQ of a decorticated slug, to perform a modicum of intellectual spade work, to dig up facts and triple-check them. Nah, dude, it would interrupt my snorting three lines of breakfast cocaine, before I tally my welfare checks and begin my arduous day of watching “American Idol” re-runs.

Anyhoooo — here is the true sourcing of the words virus and virtue, whose etymological truths are far more alluring than clod-penned blunder.

Virus
Terse classical Latin possessed a very small vocabulary, few words, in comparison for example with many-worded, blabber-mouthed, ancient Greek. Therefore individual Latin words had to carry multiple meanings. Ponderous indeed was each Roman lexeme’s semantic freight. Old Latin virus was such a noun. It meant slimy liquid, bitter juice, poison, snake venom, stinking odour, malignant personality in a person, therapeutic salve, magical secretion, repulsive taste, animal sperm, and, in later forms of Latin, human semen. What a freak’s code of meanings! Enough to cross a cryptographer’s eyes, not to mention his t’s.

Borrowed into medical English, probably during the fourteenth century, virus first named the pus of a wound or the foul discharge of an ulcer; later it was a snake’s venom; later still, during the early use of vaccines, virus named the infecting agent of a disease or contagious substance made by the body during a disease. So meant Louis Pasteur when he stated as a medical truth: “Every virus is a microbe.”

The most frequent current meaning of virus is best defined byWebster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged (Merriam-Webster, 2002): “any of a large group of submicroscopic infective agents that are regarded either as the smallest microorganisms or extremely complex molecules and are composed typically of a protein coat surrounding an RNA or DNA core of genetic material, that are capable of growth and multiplication only in living cells, and that cause various important diseases in man, animals, or plants (as mumps, rabies, or tobacco mosaic). . .”

The newest meaning is in computerese, where a virus is malignant code easily copied into more and more program locations where, happy do-badder, it can infect and mess up other programs’ procedures.

True Etymology of Virus
Latin virus is cognate with other Indo-European bases like Sanskrit visa ‘poison,’ Avestan vīša ‘poison,’ ancient Greek ἰός ‘poison.’ Virus’ interesting kin in a Germanic tongue like English is the word ooze! In Old English wase meant ‘marsh, swamp.’ Other reflexes of the morpheme were Old Frisian wase ‘mud’ Danish vejs ‘mucky river bottom,’ Swedish vesa, ves, veis ‘sticky muck,’ and Old Norse veisa ‘swamp.’ The /w/ of English wase was assimilated, helped by the very long dialectic pronouncing of the vowel a, and by the semi-consonantal w’s propensity to blend with a following vowel in the diphthongizing glides of daily speech, so that sounds like waase became oose became ooze. The first meaning of the English word ooze was ‘swampy wet mud.’

Other Viral Words

Virion
This word names the completed, infectious form of a virus that has made it outside a host cell. A virion is made up of proteins and RNA, a nucleic acid. Its precursor comes to the surface of the host cell and buds off in asexual reproduction. Virion is the 1959 coinage of a French virologist from virus + -ion a suffix often of diminutive meaning.

Capsid
The capsid is the thin protein shell or coating of a virus that encloses the core viral RNA. The capsid is the transmissible and thus infective form of a virus. Capsa means ‘box’ in Latin. Think of capsule ‘little box.’ The suffixal –id is common in words borrowed into French and English from Latin and Greek words that have a dental consonant ( /d/ ) as part of their full stem.

Zoonotic
The Ebola virus is zoonotic. This is the adjective of the medical noun zoonosis = Greek ζῷον zoon ‘animal’ + Greek νόσος nosos ‘sickness, ailment, disease.’ Think of the scientific study of animal life, zoology. The much rarer term nosology names the scientific classification of diseases and its modern meaning ‘the study of the characteristics of one particular disease,’  e.g. “The nosology of Ebola is under intense scrutiny, leading hopefully to preventative therapies.”

 

Virtue
Current modern meanings of virtue include any quality of being good, worthy or admirable, whether morally good or good by natural talent. Virtue may be also possession of inherent qualities by an object.

True Etymology of Virtue
Virtue entered English from Old French vertu at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066 CE. The French word was merely the Romance form of the common Latin noun, virtus, virtutis whose semantic range embraced meanings like ‘worth, excellence, goodness, strength, bravery and manliness.’ The last is the root meaning in Latin, for virtus descends from the Latin gender noun vir ‘man, male.’

One of the happiest importers of the word vertu was Geoffrey Chaucer, the first great poet in Middle English, who opens his The Canterbury Tales, in fourteenth-century English, with praise of April showers and their wetness, which bathe every vine in sweet liquor (liquid), whose virtue engenders the flower.

“Whan that Aprille with his shoures soote
The droghte of March hath perced to the roote
And bathed every veyne in swich licour,
Of which vertu engendred is the flour. . .”

Chaucer also knew the list of the Seven Cardinal Virtues. The natural virtues or qualities were Justice, Prudence, Temperance and Fortitude. The divine virtues were Faith, Hope and Charity.

Virgin, from Latin virgo, virginis is not related to vir ‘man,’ but rather to some mythological reason that Virgo the constellation was so often shown carrying a virga ‘a ceremonial rod or staff ‘ indicative of her power.’

Cognates of Virtue & Vir
The Latin vir ‘man’ had many cousins that appear in modern English.

A virago is a woman who acts (Latin agere ‘to act’) like a man (Latin vir.) A manly man is virile. A dick-wagging macho fuckwad may also partake of virility, but it is usually not necessary to remind him. An old synonym for male genitals popular with fastidious Victorian physicians was virilia. A virtuoso is an artist with outstanding qualities in her or his particular art, through Italian from Late Latin virtuosus ‘abounding in virtue.’

Our trudge down Stud Trail shall end with an obsolete term, but one in bad need of revival. There is no modern English synonym for our Italian borrowing, the word castrato, a male singer rudely deprived of boyhood gonads in order to keep a boyish alto or soprano. Thankfully the brutal practice is universally illegal. Still, through Italian from Latin e, ex ‘out of’ + vir ‘man, manliness,’ English once had the nasty verb to evirate ‘to emasculate’ and such a wretch was an evirato. Greatly to be deplored was his lamentable eviration.

 

3 Virtuous Latin Sentences

1.

Praestatur laus virtuti, sed multo ocius verno gelu tabescit.
 
Praise is bestowed on virtue but vanishes more quickly than frost in spring.
—Livius Andronicus (c.280-204 BCE)

 

2.
Ignis aurum probat, miseria fortes viros.
 
Fire tests gold; adversity tests strong men.

The Roman philosopher, writer and playwright Seneca, in De Providentia ‘Concerning the Operation of Fate,’ suggests that manliness and bravery can only be proven AFTER the battle.

 

3.

Primum vir esto.

First, be a man.
 
Motto of Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas, USA.

 

And so, having touched, however briefly, the upper echelons of pedagogy, we may take our modest leave, grateful to have merely nodded to the Muses and scuffed our sandals upon the Kansan Parnassus of Baldwin City.

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad