pożyczki optima kalkulator kredyt 15000 w jakim banku obligacje pożyczki narodowej 1934 pożyczki dla firm pko bp kredyt bank 3 maja lublin pożyczki gotówkowe w londynie kredyt konsolidacyjny nordea oprocentowanie getin bank oferta pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny porównywarka pożyczki pozabankowe dla zadłużonych poznań umowa pożyczki pieniędzy z zabezpieczeniem kredyt bankowy jako źródło finansowania msp kredyt mieszkaniowy w banku bph kredyt gotówkowy w pekao sa opinie kredyty chwilówki konto kredyt konsolidacyjny kalkulator online pozyczka na umowe o prace z niskim oprocentowaniem kredyt gotówkowy w getin banku umowa pożyczki pomiędzy spółką a wspólnikiem kredyty bez bik w szczecinie kredyt bank które bankomaty bez prowizji pożyczki pod zastaw radom szybkie i tanie pożyczki przez internet pożyczki pod zastaw rtv częstochowa kredyt dla zadluzonych boleslawiec kredyt bank nowa nazwa biedronka pożyczki dla pracowników pożyczki dla pracowników a pcc księgowanie odsetek od udzielonej pożyczki kredyt bank iława kredyt samochodowy w jakim banku kredyt bank oddział marki godziny otwarcia kredyt bankowy a pożyczka różnice pożyczki chwilówki na dowód kraków mennica pożyczki opinie kredyt w przeźmierowie pożyczki na dowód bielawa pozyczki do domu klienta pożyczki pozabankowe bez bik kredyt bank gdańsk ul noskowskiego godziny otwarcia pożyczki bez bik i krd umowa pożyczki a zabezpieczenie pożyczka pod weksel poznań pożyczki mieszkaniowe dla sędziów bocian pożyczki kwidzyn kredyty chwilówki grójecka 78 kredyty chwilówki strzegomska wrocław pożyczki gotówkowe do 20000 kredyty pozabankowe bez wychodzenia z domu ostrow wlkp rejestracja kredytu w urzędzie skarbowym kredyty pozabankowe kraków kredyt bank wypłaty bez prowizji jak zdobyc pozyczke bez bik i komornika kredyt bank kontakt szczecin pożyczki dla młodych małżeństw kredyt bez bik oswiecim pożyczki sezam całą polska gdzie można dostać kredyt bez bik pożyczki ostrów wlkp dla zadłóżonych kontakt tel pożyczki na dowód żywiec pożyczki chwilówki bełchatów kredyt w banku a umowa na czas określony pożyczki bez bik pruszków kredyty chwilówki chorzów pożyczki na procent wrocław kredyty konsolidacyjne gliwice kredyt bank facebook gdzie dostane pozyczke bez sprawdzania w biku pożyczki głogów kredyt bank w płońsku multika rzeszów kredyt bez bik umowa pożyczki kto zgłasza do urzędu skarbowego przelew zagraniczny do kredyt banku pożyczki dla bezrobotnych włocławek oblicz ratę pożyczki ing potwierdzenie pożyczki wzór kredyt bank częstochowa oddziały kredyty pozabankowe gdańsk kredyt mieszkaniowy wbk forum pożyczki chwilówki pomorskie kredyty chwilówki partner pożyczki łapy kredyt samochodowy na firmę kalkulator pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i zaświadczeń warszawa euro cash pozyczki szczecin kredyt w lukas banku opinie kredyt bank łowicz telefon pożyczki bez bik z dostawą do domu kredyt bank dane teleadresowe pożyczki dla bezrobotnych na raty kredyt bank busko godziny otwarcia podatek od pożyczki udzielonej spółce umowa pożyczki przelew gant pożyczki pożyczki bocian ostrowiec pożyczki chwilówki bez bik i big kredyt mieszkaniowy oferty banków kredyt konsolidacyjny wrocław kredyt bez bik na oświadczenie kredyt bank prowadzenie konta bocian pożyczki jaki procent kredyt bank w gdańsku godziny otwarcia pożyczki na weksel kraków pożyczki dla zadłużonych bez dochodu bocian pożyczki chełm ranking kredytów samochodowych lipiec 2013 kredyty bez bik i krd szczecin pożyczki poza bankowe turek kalkulator kredytu mieszkaniowego kredyt bank kredyt bank konstancinska kredyt bank sa tarnobrzeg kredyt bank sa poznań kredyt gotówkowy bez bik wałbrzych pożyczki za 1 gr kredyt bank sieradz godz otwarcia kredyty bankowe konto bilansowe szybkie pożyczki bez zaświadczeń warszawa łukasz formela pożyczki szybkie pożyczki opole pożyczki dla polaków w londynie kredyty mieszkaniowe będą tanieć tsk pożyczki pozyczki w nowym saczu kredyt bank pruszków ubezpieczenie pożyczki skok firma pro domo łomż pożyczki pożyczki na sam dowód myszków tablica pl pożyczka na sam dowód mińsk maz kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa na czas określony pożyczki bez bik lubartów kredyt bank wyplata za granica pożyczki pod weksel cała polska feniks pożyczki olecko pko bp kredyt studencki oświadczenie poręczyciela przedmiotem pożyczki mogą być godziny przelewow kredyt banku kredyt bank w leborku udziele pozyczki prywatnej na samochód kredyt na otwarcie firmy ze zla historia kredytowa kredyt mieszkaniowy dla 60 latka kredyt w banku śląskim kredyt mieszkaniowy pozabankowy kredyt konsolidacyjny w banku pocztowym kredyt bank małopolska kredyt bank pocztowy kalkulator umowa pożyczki zawarta pod warunkiem pożyczki darłowo umorzenie pożyczki udzielonej przez gminę kredyt bank karta kredytowa oprocentowanie pożyczki prywatne gniezno prywatne pozyczki chwilowki w domu klienta łodz pożyczki na dowód rawicz pożyczki bez zaświadczeń inowrocław jak dostac kredyt w banku w uk kredyt w anglii forum kredyt bank oddział w toruniu pozyczk tygodniowki elbląg arka pożyczki piła kredyty bez bik i big pożyczki bez bik piła kredyt bank lokata przez internet bank pko kredyt pozyczka podobna do okam uk kredyt bank krynica kontakt kredyt bank tarnowskie góry pożyczki pod zastaw kredyt bank toruń tel kredyt bank piła adres kredyt bank warszawa górczewska 200 kredyt mieszkaniowy ranking lipiec 2012 konwersja pożyczki na kapitał zapasowy wymagalność umowy pożyczki pożyczki od najbliższej rodziny pożyczki bez bik przeworsk kredyty chwilówki w warszawie umowa pożyczki wzór urząd skarbowy kredyt bank sa tel kredyt bank zespół zajęć komorniczych kredyt w jakim banku najtaniej pożyczki chwilówki radom kredyty chwilówki katowice warszawska pożyczki rumia pozyczki pozabankowe 7 ledziny pożyczki bez zaświadczeń płock umowa pożyczki referat wyłudzenie pożyczki w providencie kredyt bank warszawa vii oddział poręczenie pożyczki krzyżówka kredyt pozabankowy koszalin pożyczki gotówkowe z obsługą w domu kredyt bez bik współpraca pożyczki komornikiem kredyt bankowy w rachunkowości pozyczki prywatne online w debicy kredyt samochodowy dla mundurowych pożyczka z komornikiem kredyty helios pozyczki pila umowa pożyczki prywatnej kredyt bank mława godziny otwarcia kruk pożyczki gotówkowe pożyczki w kruku bank wbk kredyt bez komornika wroclaw gumtree kredyt studencki bank śląski pko bp kredyt mieszkaniowy symulacja kredyty mieszkaniowe rodzaje pożyczki lombardowe lodz kredyt konsumencki prawo bankowe kredyty bez bik elblag umowa pożyczki pomiędzy firmami pcc kredyt mieszkaniowy dla rodziny kredyt samochodowy lukas bank kalkulator umowa pożyczki do spółki komandytowej kredyt mieszkaniowy z wkładem własnym pożyczki chwilówki 18 lat kredyt konsolidacyjny forum opinie pożyczki bez bik wierzyciel kredyt bank gdansk wrzeszcz szybkie prywatne pożyczki do ręki w olsztynie potrącanie rat pożyczki z zasiłku chorobowego pko kwidzyn kredyty studenckie jaki jest numer do bociana zeby wziasc pozyczke santander kredyt z kuponem kredyt bank w sochaczewie pozyczka dla pracujących na czarno bez bik wawa pożyczki na nowy biznes pożyczki dla nauczycieli w szkole umowa pożyczki konsumenckiej kredyt mieszkaniowy kalkulator zdolności kredyt pozabankowy na oświadczenie pożyczki podobne jak provident pożyczka do domu płock pożyczki bez sprawdzania baz dłużników kredyt mieszkaniowy dublin niskoprocentowe kredyty uk bank pko kredyt studencki regulamin kredyty mieszkaniowe obliczanie rat kredyt w banku slaskim umowa pożyczki papierów wartościowych kredyt bank kosztorys pożyczki gotówkowe w santander marek woch pożyczki umowa pożyczki jakie pcc kredyt gotówkowy bez sprawdzania bik pożyczki biznes kredyt w banku bez zaswiadczen o zarobkach kredyt bank mokotowska 49 arkadiusz nowakowski pożyczki kredyty chwilówki windykacja praca pcc od umowy pożyczki od udziałowca 2011 kredyt bank kasprzaka 2 w jakim banku wziąć najlepiej kredyt kredyt mieszkaniowy zły bik regulamin kredytu studenckiego pko bp kredyt bank sa białystok kredyty mieszkaniowe toruń kredyt bankowy a pożyczka pieniężna kredyt mieszkaniowy w uk forum kredyt bez bik glogow kredyt bez bik myszkow lew pożyczki alior bank kredyt pod zastaw mieszkania pożyczki od 18 lat online marża w kredyt banku kredyt bank kiedy przelewy kredyt bank janów lubelski godziny otwarcia które banki dają kredyt w euro kredyt w banku dla studenta kredyt pozabankowy gdynia pilne pożyczki bez bik prosta umowa pożyczki potrzebuję pożyczki forum prywatne kredyty na dowod online bez zaswiadczen look pozyczki i podobne umowa pożyczki 777 trusty pożyczki pożyczki bez bik i krd gdańsk pożyczki bez zaświadczeń dla bezrobotnych kredyt online idea bank kredyt bank kursy walut chf kredyt bank wloclawek kredyt bank krakow wielicka kredyt bank hr oddziały kredyt banku we wrocławiu kredyt konsolidacyjny opinie forum kredyty studenckie w pko bp umowa pożyczki na czas nieoznaczony kredyt bez umowy o prace bez bik pokwitowanie odbioru pożyczki wzór kredyt w nordea banku kredyt bankowy symulacja umowa pożyczki pieniężnej urząd skarbowy kredyt mieszkaniowy rodzina na swoim dla singli bocian pozyczki garwolin kredyt mikro bik kredyt bank toruń ul grudziądzka pożyczki bez badania zdolności kredytowej kredyt bank bielany warszawa umowa przedłużenia pożyczki kredyt konsolidacyjny bez wychodzenia z domu pożyczki prywatne ełk kredyt bez bik do 10 tys kredyt hipoteczny bez zaświadczeń oswiecim kredyty chwilówki tychy tel pożyczki na dowód skok stefczyka kredyt w jakim banku 2013 podatek od umowy pożyczki w 2012 kredyt bez biku gliwice skarabeusz pożyczki rzeszów druk wniosek o udzielenie pożyczki z pkzp kredyty chwilówki świdnica pro domo pożyczki gdańsk pożyczki chwilówki ranking kredyt bez bik piła pożyczki bez zdolności kredytowej przez internet kredyt na orange jaki numer umowa pożyczki udziałowca wzór mennica pozyczki jelenia gora opinie umowa pożyczki pieniężnej w rodzinie wzór kredyt bank inowrocław pożyczki na które trzeba uważać kredyt bank brodno kredyt bank kłodzko godziny otwarcia pożyczki pozabankowe 2012 kredyt konsolidacyjny bez zabezpieczeń ranking pożyczki rumia pożyczki chwilówki na dowód online kredyt gotówkowy w millenium bank kredyt bank warszawa windykacja pkobp kredyt pozabankowy kredyt bank toruń grudziądzka godziny otwarcia kredyt bank bialystok godziny otwarcia podatek od pożyczki od rodziny kredyt bank kedzierzyn alior bank kredyt internetowy bank pko lublin kredyt na dowod osobisty pożyczki chwilówki łask wysokość oprocentowania pożyczki pożyczka bez bik 30000 kredyt bank chojnice kalkulator pożyczki lukas bank pożyczki pod zastaw działki budowlanej optima pożyczki wrocław pożyczki od ręki bydgoszcz gdańsk pożyczki bez bik kredyty chwilówki bez opłat waloryzacja pożyczki kredyt bank radomsko godziny otwarcia kredyt bank toruń fosa staromiejska nowe pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank warszawa ul żytnia pożyczki bez bik bank kredyt bank czeladź kredyt bank kostrzyn kredyt bank pruszcz gdański kredyt konsolidacyjny bez poreczycieli i zadluzonych tanie pożyczki gotówkowe kalkulator kredyt w banku dla bezrobotnych pozyczki plock dobre pożyczki bez bik kredyt konsolidacyjny getin bank kredyt bank facebook kredyt konsolidacyjny bez bik wrocław pożyczki bez zaświadczeń gdańsk kredyt bez bik kredyt bez bik w kielcach pożyczki końskie kredyt studencki bank bgż kredyty dla zadluzonych białogard pożyczki bez sprawdzania krd i bik kredyty bez bik w domu wypowiedzenie ustnej umowy pożyczki umowa pożyczki wzór chomikuj kredyty bez bik szybko kredyty pod zastaw mieszkania bez biku kredyt gotówkowy w eurobank pożyczki chwilówki bez meldunku i dochodu stargard umowy pożyczki a podatek open finance pożyczki gotówkowe umowa pożyczki na samochód przewalutowanie pożyczki różnice kursowe lokata strukturyzowana kredyt bank opinie pożyczki gotówkowe tczew czy warto wziąć kredyt w getin banku preferencyjny kredyt studencki w bz wbk dokument pożyczki skarabeusz pożyczki praca kredyt bank kepno kredyt bank nowa dęba kredyt bank wyniki 2011 pożyczki olsztyn kredyty chwilówki boguszowice pożyczki jak provident pożyczki bez bik na telefon alior sync kredyt gotówkowy kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny 30000 w jakim banku kredyt na dowód pożyczki na dowód dla bezrobotnych kredyty bez bik toruń kredyt bank olsztyn wojska polskiego godziny otwarcia pekao sa kredyt studencki dokumenty kredyt w getin banku kalkulator kredyt konsolidacyjny bz wbk kalkulator przejęcie pożyczki kredyt bank radlin tel prywatne pozyczki na weksel warunki do spelnienia kredyt alior pozyczki bez bik wrzesnia pożyczki chwilówki ogłoszenia kredyt bank rzeszów udzielę pożyczki pod weksel warszawa pożyczki chwilówki leszno banknot pożyczki łódź kredyt bank rebranding kredyt w noble bank kredyt konsolidacyjny komornik bocian pożyczki tczew pożyczki gotówkowe bez formalności wniosek o kredyt studencki pko bp kredyt w banku millennium forum kredyt w pekao sa opinie kredyt rodzina na swoim w banku pocztowym opinie kredyty chwilówki wieliczka kredyty chwilówki radomsko pożyczki lubliniec pożyczki gotówkowe getin bank kredyt mieszkaniowy bgż kalkulator pożyczki dla zadłużonych poznań kredyt konsolidacyjny z zajęciem komorniczym oddziały kredyt banku szczecin kredyt bez biku w stalowej woli umowa pożyczki celowej kredyty bez umowy kredyty bez bik szamotuły niespłacany kredyt w banku kredyt bank rodzina na swoim opinie pożyczki gotówkowe na 10 lat kredyt eurobank forum pewne pożyczki bez bik i krd kredyty chwilowki zory pożyczka bez bik na 30 lat takto pozyczka bez zaświadczeń bank pekao sa ubezpieczenie kredytu kredyt w millenium bank umowa pożyczki odzyskanie pieniędzy pożyczki dla firm transportowych pożyczki na dowód bez zaświadczeń o dochodach pożyczki chwilówki ciechanów kredyt bank opole pozyczka z komornikiem lublin pożyczki pozabankowe śląskie spłata pożyczki walutowej w pln kredyt bank spółdzielczy umowa pożyczki z członkiem zarządu kredyty banku pko bp kredyt bank cinema city przelew własny w kredyt banku pożyczki pozabankowe wyszków kredyt mieszkaniowy umowa na czas określony pożyczki bez bik poznań kredyt bez biku kalisz pożyczki bez bik online kredyt bez bik rzeszów kredyty bez bik bialystok kalkulator kredytowy gotówkowy kredyt bank ekspresowe pożyczki bez bik i krd pokwitowanie odbioru pożyczki wzór udzielenie pożyczki członkowi zarządu kod do kredytu orange kredyty helios kredyt bank nowy sącz bankomaty pożyczki bez bik w lubinie pożyczki geronimo kredyt studencki warunki pko pożyczki bez bik i krd pozabankowe kredyt bez zaswiadczen jelenia gora gdzie udziela pozyczki ze zlym bikiem kredyt dla ludzi pracujacych w uk w jakim banku macie kredyt kredyt bank w wyszkowie umowa pożyczki w transzach kredyt samochodowy w alior banku opinie kredyt bank w świnoujściu kredyty pozabankowe lubin rejestracja umowy pożyczki od udziałowca pożyczki bez biku przemyśl pożyczki chwilówki grójecka czy warto brać kredyt w getin banku koszty pozwu o zwrot pożyczki pożyczki pozabankowe nysa umowa pożyczki raty wzór eurocash pożyczki kraków umorzenie pożyczki z wfośigw księgowanie praca pożyczki chwilówki kredyt bank dział windykacji lublin niespłacanie kredytu mieszkaniowego optima pożyczki łódź kredyt konsolidacyjny na 25 lat jak grzecznie odmówić pożyczki dobry kredyt gotówkowy bez bik

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“Bill Casselman is one of the country’s [Canada's] leading etymologists and word hounds, as is shown by his numerous books on language, including the celebrated Canadian Sayings.”

                                     - Professor Jennifer MacLennan, in Readings for Technical Communication, Oxford University Press, 2008

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“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

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On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

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Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

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This site features the fun of word origins. By clicking on ARCHIVES below, you have free access to more than 400 short essays on wordlore. Unlike many somber word sites, my essays employ plenty of humor. Please give them a try!

 

next word column, Thursday, December 04, 2014

 

“Washington Crossing the Delaware” (Emanuel Leutze, 1851. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City), a detail of which is shown above, displays Old Glory, a flag folded but ready to be unfurled and brandished at the onset of the Battle of Trenton on Christmas Day, 1776 CE, an opening gambit in the surprise attack against Hessian mercenaries who were clustered like German measles across the river in New Jersey.

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All Manners of Banners: Some Neat Flag Words

 

Vexillology is the study of flags, from vexillum Latin ‘a banner carried by Roman troops,’ ultimately from the Latin verb vehere ‘to carry.’ The literal meaning then of vexillum is ‘little thing carried.’ The common combining form or suffix of scientific discipline names is -ology from Greek -logia ‘a study made up of words first spoken, then later in Greek history written down, a treatise,’ itself from the Greek λόγος logos ‘word, speech, words, discourse, reason ’ and ultimately from the Greek verb λέγειν legein ‘to speak.’

From the same verb comes our English word vehicle, literal meaning ‘small transport that carries things.’ The Latin verb stem of vehere lurks in other English words like convey, convex, invective, vector, vehement, and vein.


Most English-speakers cannot give the proper names to the parts of a flag? Can you?
 
     The Parts of a Flag



1. STAFF. The pole from which a flag is flown.
2. CANTON. Any quarter of the flag, although it
commonly refers to the upper hoist quarter or chief canton.
3. FIELD. The largest area of a flag.
4. CHARGE. Any emblem or logo on the field.
5. HOIST. The part of the flag closest to the staff.
6. FLY. The part of the flag farthest from the staff.
 

The Vexillum of Saint Veronica


Vexillum has a special meaning in ecclesiastical history. It was a small linen banner tied to the top of a bishop’s crozier. The vexillum attached to such a pastoral staff was a sudarium (Latin ‘cloth for sweat’). A reasonable modern translation of sudarium would be the word handkerchief. This is perhaps a reference to Saint Veronica.

St. Veronica

Roman Catholics who know the Latin mass will remember that one of the 14 stations of the cross is sometimes called in Latin sudarium Veronicae or vexillum Veronicae. The sixth station of the cross commemorates the moment when a woman in the crowd watching Jesus carry his own cross to the place of crucifixion took pity on Christ and handed him her veil to wipe the sweat from his brow. After using it, Jesus handed the cloth back to Veronica and she saw that image of Christ’s visage had appeared on the cloth as a miracle.

The pious lady was only named much later. She was first known as Berenice (Macedonian Greek version of Greek Pherenike ‘bearer of victory.’ In spite of pious folk etymology, Veronica does not stem from Latin and Greek vera Latin ‘true’ + eikon Greek ‘image.’ Saint Veronica is the patron saint of photographers (!) and laundry workers.

Latin names for the stations of the cross are Via Crucis ‘way of the cross’ and Via Dolorosa ‘way of sorrows.’ Comic essayist S. J. Perelman referred to a shoddy summer house he once rented as the Villa Dolorosa.
 
Vexillary
Another word from the same root, obscure except in the study of Roman military history, is vexillarius, in English vexillary, a class of veterans in the Roman army, serving under a special standard.  In Latin vexillarius is also a word for an ensign or standard-bearer.

Vexillator

In medieval miracle plays, sometimes called mysteries, a vexillator carried a banner naming one of the settings of the play and also sometimes speaking the prologue to the play.
 

Time now to flag other flag words.
 
Banner
Banner came into English from Norman French banere, after 1066 and all that. It is ultimately a Gothic word bandwa ‘token, sign’ that gives rise to several European terms like Spanish bandera and Italian bandiera.

My introduction to the word banner came when memorizing for recitation in Grade 8, Henry W. Longfellow’s rather jingly-jangly, kitschy-rhymed poem “Excelsior (1841).” The Latin title means ‘higher’ or ‘more forward-going.’ Longfellow borrowed it from the seal of the State of New York where it reposes as the noble motto. A poetic translation, spun out to a more pleasing semantic amplitude, might be “Strive Ever Onward!” It is a jolly good poem for young people to memorize because Longfellow’s thumping rhythms pound along merrily, making the thing quite easy to commit to memory.

The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ‘mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

‘Tis a maudlin tale our poet recounts. The ardent youth, ignoring warnings of the know-it-all villagers, climbs higher and higher into the shivering fastness of a storm-flailed mountain, carrying his stupid pole. Comes the dawn and Young Ardent is found frozen to death, stiffer than a defunct carp in January, dead in the snow, his youthful pinkies still clutching the pole and its now rather ironic banner ‘Excelsior.’ Death has been well dubbed ‘the great ironist.’ See the entire poem reprinted at the end of this column.
 
Gonfalon
A gaudy flag word indeed, borrowed by English knights from a word popular during the Italian Renaissance. It sounds better in Italian with that gentle /e/ at its end: gonfalone. It’s a banner that hangs from a cross-bar rather than being tied to a pole. A single-pointed or swallow-tailed gonfalon is still used in ecclesiastical troopings. Medieval Italian republics used them as banners. From the greatest epic poem in English, Paradise Lost (1667 CE), here is John Milton’s use of the word to describe the ceremony of angel hoards summoned to the throne of god:


                      By present, past, and future on such day
                     As Heav'ns great Year brings forth, th' Empyreal Host
                     Of Angels by Imperial summons call'd,
                     Innumerable before th' Almighties Throne
                     Forthwith from all the ends of Heav'n appeerd
                     Under thir Hierarchs in orders bright
                     Ten thousand thousand Ensignes high advanc'd,
                     Standards and Gonfalons twixt Van and Reare
                     Streame in the Aire, and for distinction serve
                     Of Hierarchies, of Orders, and Degrees;


     ─ John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 5, lines 582-591

Etymology of Gonfalon
Gonfalon is a reborrowing of the word from Italian gonfalone after a much earlier appearance in Old English as guthfana, later gonfanon, ultimately from Old Teutonic gunthja ‘war’ + fano ‘banner.’ With fano compare the modern German word for flag, die Fahne, one and the same.

The most infamous use of the word Fahne in modern German history was as the opening line of the Nazi National Anthem (1930-1945), The Horst-Wessel-Lied (“Horst Wessel Song”). Die Fahne hoch means ‘the flag on high.’ The lyrics were written by one Horst Wessel, a Nazi activist in Berlin of not very great caution who was murdered by local communists. Propaganda poobah, Joseph Goebbels, decided to make the bumbling Horst the leading martyr of the Nazi Movement and did so. Since 1945, it is illegal in Germany to sing in public the Horst Wessel Lied. Dummer Horst hoch!
 
Burgee
A burgee is a small sailing flag,a two- or three-cornered banner used by yachts as a distinguishing flag.
 
Ensign
Ensign is what is left after the Latin neuter plural noun insignia ‘signs and signals’ passed through Old French into English. Ensign has several meanings, of which we are concerned with only a few. An ensign is a military banner, a body of men who serve under such a banner, and one who carries that banner, a standard-bearer. From ancient use as an infantry rank, ensign also became the name of a rank in the United States Navy, where an ensign is the lowest of commissioned naval officers.

French Flag Words


Drapeau is the common French word for flag, from Low Latin drappus ‘piece of cloth.’ It is not a native Latin word but may be Gallic in origin. The Old French word drap came first, meaning ‘cloth material’; then the diminutive form of drap appeared, drapeau ‘little piece of cloth, flag.’ The word became an occupation name too; un drapeau was a cloth-merchant, and that gave rise to the French surname, Drapeau.

To make cloth was the French verb draper, from which arise English borrowings like draper, drapes and drapery. In America, the sense of woven cloth became specialized to mean one particular kind of cloth, namely, window-coverings or drapes.


L’étendard
L’étendard means ‘standard.’ It is historical and poetic French nowadays. For example, in the lyrics to the French national anthem, “La Marseillaise” — “L’étendard sanglant est levé” ‘the little flag stained with blood is now held high.’

A porte-étendard is a standard bearer, that is, one who represents all that a political cause stands for.

Now, lest your spirit flag or your brio fizzle, must we egress, charged gonfalons aflutter in the spring breeze. But not before we stand and recite at the front of the class, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem.


Excelsior!
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!

In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!

"Try not the Pass!" the old man said:
"Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!

"Oh stay," the maiden said, "and rest
Thy weary head upon this breast!"
A tear stood in his bright blue eye,
But still he answered, with a sigh,
Excelsior!

"Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche!"
This was the peasant's last Good-night,
A voice replied, far up the height,
Excelsior!

At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!

A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!

There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!


Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

American poet, 1807-1882

 

 

 

For a selection from the free archives of my 400 previous word columns, click here

 

 

  

copyright © 2014 William Gordon Casselman

 

French Canadian Translation Services

 

 

 

 

------------------------------------------------------

new blog Monday August 18, 2014

Canadian Tax Officials Who Connived with Stephen Harper
To Harass his Enemies with Unnecessary Tax Audits Will Be
Named, Tried & Punished.

Read how this will happen on my latest blog essay by clicking below.

 

 

 

 

 

Click to Read My Most Recent Columns

 

1. Agomphious, Rusk, Quinion & Other Rare Words

2. A Vault of Ninnies

3. Dick-Wagger

4. Beaver as a Dirty Word

Any comments, additional word lore or book orders?

Please email me at

lutrine@rogers.com

 

 

 

Hundreds of links to more word essays; click below.

 

 

If you enjoyed this column, please tell your word-loving friends about my site

and ask them to visit it.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Learn Some Quebec French Sayings

 

Quebec French Sayings -1

On Twitter, I am BillCasselman. Check me out!

 

 

Order new or used online from amazon.com

“The book is wonderful!” says a buyer of my Dictionary of Medical Derivations at amazon.com

 

 

If you can't find my books online or in stores,order them directly from the author. Just send me an email

 

wordguy@shaw.ca

 

 

Description of Site Contents Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ & Words of the World features thousands of entries about Canadian phrases, words, expressions, and folk sayings. Canadian French expressions, idioms and folk sayings are featured and explained in English. The latest, newest French Canadian slang is deciphered. Québécois joual phrases and jokes are explained in English. My newest, latest, unpublished word stories and studies appear here on this website. Canadian English is the focus but English spoken and written all over the world and throughout the history of the language interests me as well. Words of the World spotlights non-Canadian English words and their origins from languages all over the world and permits me to venture on etymological journeys well beyond the pleasant confines of my native Canada.

Copyright © 1996 -2013 William Gordon Casselman

etymology of Canadian words and phrasesphrases of Canadaword history of CanadaCanadian talkCanadian way of speakingCanadian speechwhere Canadian words come fromfunny Canadian sayingshumorous Canadian expressionsCanadian catchwordsCanadian epigramsCanadian mottoesCanadian stock sayingslearning Canadian Englishlearning Canadian French expressionslearning Quebec folk sayings introduction to etymology Canadian English as ESL slang and Canadian English slang       learn Canadian English Canadian English word power       learn Canadian words Canadian English word lists   . words used by Canadians Canadian lingo Kalan Porter pictures photographs photos Kalan Porter word lore Canadian sayings for ESL  William Gordon Casselman, Canadian author Bill Casselman's books Canadian words folk sayings of Canada Canadian expressions Canadian phrases words used by Canadians Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day archives etymology of Canadian wordsetymology examples of Canadian word origins Canadian English place names of Canada word stories funny Canadian sayings Canadian books books about Canadian words word roots Canadian vocabulary Canadian language Canadian lingo Canadian turn of phrase Canadian way of speaking French-Canadian words French-Canadian words in English Quebec words Quebec French Canadian surnames Canadian last names funny expressions of Canada Canadian word derivations Casselman's Canadian Words Casselmania Canadian Food Words Canadian Garden Words What's in a Canadian Name? Canadian Sayings Canadian Sayings one Canadian Sayings two Canadian Sayings 1 Canadian Sayings 2 Canadian Sayings 3 Canadian Sayings three dictionary of medical derivations etymology of medical terms what medical words mean origin of medical vocabulary medical word stories Canadian food words culinary terms of Canada where food names come from Canadian English words about Canada bill casselman bill casselman books etymology Canadian origins of words Acadian words Acadian food terms Acadian vocabulary Canadian Word of the Day™ word power word lore fun with words where words come from Canadian Word of the Day™ Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day Canadian French as a second language Bill Casselman's Canadian Word of the Day™ Canadian Word of the Day Canadian words words from Canada Canadian English Learn Canadian sayings Learn Canadian English Canadian English as a second language Canadian English study Canadian English as ESL ESL tips with Canadian English expressions Learning English ESL from Canadian English speaking Canadian English learning about Canada through Canadian English  Canadian unique words unique Canadian terms words used in Canada Words that are Canadian phrases terms sayings words original Canadian original Canadian words terms phrases Canadian idioms ESL tips for learning Canadian English Canadian ESL phrase books  funny folk sayings in English Canadian slang Canadian patois patois Canadien ESL sayings ESL funny sayings ESL teaching tips Canadian funny expressions Canadian English words  special phrases in Canadian English words unique to Canada English in Canada Old Canadian Expressions Historical sayings of Canada old sayings in Canada Canadian historical sayings expressions and proverbs of Canada origin of Avril Lavigne's surname words of Canada

..

Canadian termsCanadian languageFrench Canadian sayingsbooks on Canadian Englishbooks teaching Canadian EnglishEnglish in Canada ways of speechCanadian talk in English

.

unique words of Canadaunique Canadian phrasesunique sayings of Canada.word origins Canada unique expressions of Canada

funny sayings

Canadian expressions Canadian French expressionsCanadian French wordsCanadian French idioms explained in EnglishCanadian French sayings explained in EnglishCa.

nad